Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions


Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions

Are you advocating for bicycles on every trail in every Wilderness area?

No. You won’t see us advocating for bicycles on trails like the John Muir Trail and many others. We think local land managers should be empowered to do what works for a trail based on various factors, including current usage, the resources available for trail maintenance, and the possibility of repairing a neglected trail.

If the bill is passed, will all trails in Wilderness areas be automatically open to bicycles?

No.  The bill simply removes the blanket ban of bikes.  There are no rules in the Wilderness Act that prohibit camping within 100 feet of a stream, but local land managers can ban camping near streams when they have determined it is detrimental to the environment.  Similarly, hunting is banned in certain areas and in certain seasons, horses are prohibited on certain trails, and hiking is prohibited in certain temporary conditions. So if the house bill is passed, the regulation of biking would be treated the same as the regulation of other activities that are permitted under the Wilderness Act yet prohibited when the local land manager deems those activities inappropriate.

Can federal land managers require a permit to limit the number of cyclists?

As Mount Whitney hikers know, federal land managers currently require permits for some Wilderness trails. If it is in a trail’s best interest, a manager could also require permits to control bicycle traffic. (And no, we don’t envision mountain bikers being allowed to carry a bike to the top of Mount Whitney, or wanting to try.)

Does this bill do anything other than what it says?

No. The bill is very simply written to remove the blanket prohibition.  It stops there. There are no hidden agendas, loopholes, or other possible negative repercussions from this bill.  Please take the time to read the text and you can see that it is very simple.  As we've pointed out above, land managers have discretion to ban any activity from any area they determine it is innapropriate.  So land managers can still ban bikes.

But the bill says “and for other purposes.” ?

The “and for other purposes” language merely means that not all of the information about the bill can fit into the title.  To know what is in the bill, just read the bill itself.  These words are not part of the bill and do not create an open-ended law, and are commonly used when bills are introduced.  “And for other purposes” is simply a way to shorten the title or description of what the bill does.

In summary, “It’s not a bait-and-switch".

Wilderness Is Only a Small Percentage of Public Land. Why Make a Fuss Over It?

One could ask the same question of the opponents of relaxing human-powered travel bans in Wilderness. The answer is that much Wilderness is beautiful, scenic, remote, challenging country, far from the noise and hubbub of civilization. We would like to visit it by bicycle for the same reasons our opponents don’t want us to do that—at its best, it’s iconic.

Denying mountain bikers access to Wilderness on the ground that it’s relatively little land overlooks that much, probably most, public land is vast, trackless terrain with little scenic appeal. Few mountain bikers desire to struggle over thousands of square miles of arid, treeless BLM land in Nevada, Arizona, and Wyoming with no trails and lots of sagebrush. Nor would hikers or equestrians want to do that.

Where does STC stand on EBikes?

STC seeks to restore Congress’s vision for Wilderness travel, not undermine it. In the Wilderness Act of 1964, Congress said visitors are not allowed to operate “motor vehicles” or “motorized equipment.” E-bikes fall into one or both of these categories, so STC would oppose any legislative effort to introduce them into Wilderness. (We don’t know of any such effort and think it’s unlikely one will be made.)

More information on STC’s position is available here.

Responses to 5 Arguments Against the Human Powered Travel in Wilderness Areas Act

Some of the content of this article is a bit dated, and relevant to the Senate bill, but this article was written by John Fisch on Singletracks.com, and we like it so much that we're just going to link to the article:


Still have questions?

Please send us an email at info@sustainabletrailscoalition.org.




Legislative History


Legislative History

Legislative History of Bicycles in Wilderness

The Sustainable Trails Coalition believes that the legislative history of the Wilderness Act of 1964 shows that Congress would have wanted to allow bikes in wilderness if mountain bikes had existed or they had thought about them. Everything points to Congress wanting human-powered travel generally.

But the Forest Service has gone back and forth on its understandings of what Congress intended. Allowing bicycles, then banning them, then allowing them unless a local manager banned them, and finally reaffirming a prior blanket ban shows that the question has been revisited numerous times.

We contend that federal land management agencies are interpreting the Wilderness Act inaccurately. In 1977 two of the key backers of the Wilderness Act came to the same conclusion.


"In some areas, the use of this type of equipment has already become established.  To exclude this type of equipment, which to me is compatible with the wilderness concept, would in effect to 'tie' our own hands in administering the areas"

George W. Tourtillot, Division of Legislative Reporting and Liason
In response to query by Gordon Hammon, Division of Recreation and Land Uses regarding bikes


"The forgotten outdoorsmen of today are those who like to walk, hike, ride horseback or bicycle. For them we must have trails as well as highways. Nor should motor vehicles be permitted to tyrannize the more leisurely human traffic."

President Lyndon Johnson
Trails for America, Report on the Nationwide Trails Study


The United States Forest Service defines mechanical transport so as to allow human-powered travel in Wilderness.  Since this is the first regulation implemented to support the Wilderness Act, and since it was implemented within years of the passage of the Act, it seems obvious that this interpretation was to what Congress intended.

"Mechanical transport, as herein used, shall include any contrivance which travels over ground, snow, or water, on wheels, tracks, skids, or by floatation and is propelled by a nonliving power source contained or carried on or within the device."  

36 CFR § 293.6(a) (1973), formerly 36 CFR § 251.75 (1966)


Senator Frank Church (Democrat from Idaho) and Rep. Morris K. Udall (Democrat from Arizona), key backers of the Wilderness Act of 1964, caution that the Forest Service is interpreting the Act too strictly.

Rep. Udall wrote:

"The latter concept of wilderness, the so-called ‘purity’ issue, has involved extensive debate.... that the Forest Service has been unduly restrictive in setting wilderness evaluation criteria which relied solely on the most stringent possible interpretation…”

95th Congress - Report No. 95-540

Senator Frank Church said:

"My final comments tonight concern the issue of wilderness purity. Time after time, when we discuss Wilderness, questions are raised about how developed an area can be and still qualify as wilderness, or what kinds of activities within a wilderness are consistent with the purposes of the Wilderness Act. I believe, and many citizens agree with me, that the agencies are applying provisions of the Wilderness Act too strictly and misconstruing the intent of Congress as to how these areas should be managed."

Wilderness in a Balanced Land Use Framework

The U.S. Forest Service issues a new regulation that prohibits bicycles:

"The following are prohibited in a National Forest Wilderness:... (b) Possessing or using a hang glider or bicycle."

36 CFR § 261.16 (1977), now numbered 36 CFR § 261.18.


When Congress created the Rattlesnake Wilderness in Montana with the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area and Wilderness Act of 1980, 16 USC 460ll, Congress found that cycling is considered “primitive recreation” and would be allowed in the Rattlesnake Wilderness. Congress declared that the Lolo National Forest, in which the Rattlesnake is situated,

“has long been used as a wilderness by Montanans and by people throughout the Nation who value it as a source of solitude, wildlife, clean, free-flowing waters stored and used for municipal purposes for over a century, and primitive recreation, to include such activities as hiking, camping, backpacking, hunting, fishing, horse riding, and bicycling . . . .”

Public Law 96-476


The United States Forest Service issues a third regulation. It is inconsistent with both the 1966 regulation (which permitted bikes) and the 1977 regulation (which prohibited bikes). This new regulation provides for conditional allowance. Bicycles are allowed unless expressly prohibited:

"When provided by an order, the following are prohibited:... (h) possessing or using a bicycle, wagon, cart or other vehicle."

36 CFR § 261.57(h)


In a March 1982 memorandum, the Forest Service calls the 1977 no-bicycles regulation an "editorial error" and "an inconsistency" and says:

"36 CFR 261.16(b) states : 'Possessing or using a hang glider or bicycle.’ During the last CFR Revisions we intended to remove ‘or bicycle’ but the change did not get effected."

"It was our intent to provide for the prohibition of bicycles only where their presence created a conflict or problem and implement the prohibition by use of an order for a specific wilderness."

March 9, 1982 Memo from United States Department of Agriculture

In a June 1982 memorandum, the Forest Service States:

"Previously we have directed that mechanical transport conveyances such as bicycles, wagons, wheelbarrows or deer carriers were not appropriate for wilderness. This may have been unduly restrictive"

June 11, 1982 Memo from United States Department of Agriculture


In a November memorandum, the Forest  Service announces that it has changed its mind and will enforce the 1977 bicycle prohibition.

"Previous discussions and direction on this were confusing because of the ambiguity between the direction provided by the Wilderness Act, the definition of mechanical transport, and the prohibitions in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)."

November 21, 1983 Memo from United States Department of Agriculture


On June 21, 1984, the Forest Service announces that the 1977 bicycle prohibition "was supposed to be retained." This final decision to exclude bicycles from Wilderness may have been made on the basis of a single public comment.

36 CFR Parts 251 and 261


On April 21, 1986, the Forest Service announces that the 1966 regulation, which allows for Wilderness travel by living power sources, is to be read as prohibiting Wilderness travel by certain living power sources, including bicycles.

51 FR 13835


On August 4, 1989, H.R.3172 was introduced in the House "To amend the Wilderness Act to allow the use of bicycles in wilderness areas."   The bill was referred to the Subcommittee on National Parks and Public Lands without further action.



The National Parks Service amends current regulations and authorizes park superintendents to open trails to bike use when they determine they are appropriate.  This is really the exact same legislation that Sustainable Trails Coalition seeks for Wilderness areas.

36 CFR Part 4


The Sustainable Trails Coalition forms to try and fix this situation.






Laws and Regulations

Law Review Papers on Mountain Biking and the Wilderness Act

Government Resources

Environmental Research and Studies

Interactive Online Maps

Map of Wilderness Areas in Lower 48 States

As the map shows, there are far more Wilderness areas in the West.

Map of Wilderness Areas in the Western United States

As the maps show, very large areas of our western states are designated as Wilderness areas.  Does it make sense to ban bikes in all that land?


In the News

In the News

In the News

In the News

The concept of biking in Wilderness areas has been covered for a number of years, and our recent efforts have generated considerable coverage.  Here is most of what we've seen.